Healthy Living in the North

Keeping children safe and healthy with routine immunizations

I’m drawn to the topic of immunization for National Immunization Awareness Week, which this year is April 23-30. It’s a chance to highlight the importance of routine immunizations and focus on accurate and up-to-date information and resources. It’s also a good time to reflect on the fact that in the last 50 years, immunization has saved more lives than any other intervention.

Immunization is one of the best ways parents can ensure their children stay healthy and protected from certain vaccine-preventable diseases!

During the first two years of a child’s life, they are very vulnerable and can be susceptible to many vaccine-preventable diseases. These diseases can have serious health consequences for many infants and young children. In some cases, they can be deadly.

National Immunization Awareness Week poster

“For the best protection, it’s recommended that parents follow the routine schedule and ensure all shots are given on time.”

In B.C., infants and young children aged 0-5 are given free vaccines that provide protection from the following diseases:

  • Tetanus
  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis (whooping cough)
  • Hepatitis B
  • Polio
  • Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib)
  • Meningococcal
  • Pneumococcal
  • Varicella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella (German Measles)
  • Rotavirus
  • Influenza
  • Hepatitis A (vaccine provided to Aboriginal children only)

The current immunization schedule for infants and children in B.C. has infants starting with their first set of immunizations at two months of age followed by immunizations at four months, six months, 12 months, 18 months, and kindergarten entry.

For the best protection, it’s recommended that parents follow the routine schedule and ensure all shots are given on time.

Here are six reasons from ImmunizeBC.ca why it’s best to follow the routine schedule:

  1. The routine schedule is based on the best science of today.
  2. The routine schedule is safe and works very well.
  3. You will ensure your child is protected as soon as they can be.
  4. You will reduce your child’s risk of anxiety and needle fear.
  5. The risk of side effects is the same whether vaccines are given together or separately.
  6. You will reduce the number of visits and time spent getting your child’s shots.

In B.C., parents can take their children to their local health unit for immunizations.

Have questions or want more information?

  • Call your local health unit and speak to a public health nurse.
  • Speak to your family doctor or primary health care provider.
  • Call HealthLinkBC (dial 8-1-1). They’re open 24 hours!
  • Visit ImmunizeBC.ca

About Patricia Strim

Photo and bio coming soon!

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Is your daughter in Grade 6 this year? Do you have questions about the HPV vaccine?

Dog with a sign that says "back to school".

It’s back-to-school season across the province! With all of the papers your kids are bringing home, Kathryn urges you to keep your eyes open for the Immunization Consent Form and answers your questions about the HPV vaccine and how it can protect your kids from cancer.

As we settle back into school routines and the leaves slowly start to yellow and fall, you may feel overwhelmed with the handfuls of papers that your child is bringing back from school. One paper that I hope you watch out for is the Grade 6 Immunization Consent Form.

You may have heard a lot about one of the vaccines offered to female students in Grade 6: the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. As a public health nurse, I have had many conversations with parents and girls about the HPV vaccine. I am frequently impressed with the amount of reading and research that parents do on their own to make the best choices for their children. Often, our main resource for information is social media like Facebook where it can be a challenge to find information that is evidence-based and reliable.

My goal in writing this blog is to provide you with some helpful information on the HPV vaccine and some of the valuable sites for more information that are at your fingertips! I thought about some of the most frequently asked questions that I get from parents and young women about the HPV vaccine and thought that some of these may be on your mind, too, as you consider the HPV vaccine for yourself or your child.

What is the HPV vaccine anyways?

Gardasil® (HPV4) is the HPV vaccine given to Grade 6 girls in B.C. It protects against 4 different types of HPV infection.

It provides protection against two types of HPV that cause about 70% of cervical cancers, 80% of anal cancers, and various other cancers such as cancers of the mouth & throat, penis, vagina, and vulva. It also protects against infection from two more types of HPV that cause about 90% of genital warts cases.

What is HPV?

HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world today. Approximately 75% of sexually active Canadians will have at least one HPV infection in their lifetime. HPV is spread through skin-to-skin contact. Any kind of sexual activity involving oral or genital contact can spread HPV. Sexual intercourse is not necessary to get infected.

Why should I vaccinate my Grade 6 daughter?

Many parents have asked me why their child should have the vaccine if their daughters are not currently sexually active. Research has shown that vaccination provides the best levels of protection in girls aged 9 to 13. In fact, preteens have a better immune response to the vaccine. The vaccine works best when it is given before sexual activity begins, because the HPV vaccines were developed to prevent HPV, not to treat it.

Is the vaccine safe?

I often receive questions about the HPV vaccine and its safety. Studies show that the HPV vaccine is safe and effective. Since the HPV vaccine was approved, 175 million doses have been distributed worldwide. Vaccines in Canada are only licenced for use if they meet strict standards for safety and effectiveness.

The most common side effects from the vaccine include redness, swelling, and soreness in the arm where the vaccine was given as well as headache and fever. You cannot become infected with HPV from the vaccine and the vaccines do not contain any antibiotics or preservatives, such as mercury or thimerosal.

What if my daughter missed her Grade 6 vaccine?

Worried your daughter missed her Grade 6 HPV vaccine? Girls born in 1994 or later who missed getting the HPV4 vaccine can contact their health care provider to get immunized at no cost.

What else do I need to know about HPV and cervical cancer?

  • Three out of four sexually active women will get HPV at some point in their lives.
  • Most don’t show any signs or symptoms and can pass the virus onto others without even knowing it.
  • Every year in B.C., 175 women will get cervical cancer.

What about my son and other boys and men?

You may have heard of new eligibility for HPV vaccine for boys and men aged 9-26 in B.C. While there is new eligibility for free vaccine for certain boys and men, there will be no changes to the school vaccine programs. If you’d like more information about new eligibility criteria and accessing the free vaccine for boys and men, visit HealthLinkBC.

Can you suggest any other helpful resources about HPV?

  • For more information on the HPV vaccine, visit HPV Info or ImmunizeBC.
  • Check out some informative videos about the HPV vaccine at ImmunizeBC. I like the Dr. Mike Evans videos and find the personal stories of experiences with cervical cancer very powerful to watch.
  • If you have more questions or would like more information about the HPV vaccine, speak to your doctor or contact your primary care provider.
Kathryn Germuth

About Kathryn Germuth

From northern B.C., Kathryn worked as a public health nurse in the communities of Terrace and Kitimat before filling in as the Public Health Communications Liaison Nurse. Kathryn has a passion for healthy community work and health promotion. She loves living in the north and experiencing all it has to offer including going for a jog amongst our beautiful scenery. This Christmas, she is expecting a new addition to her family and excited for all the new experiences and joy that will bring.

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Protect yourself against tetanus this spring!

Couple hiking in forest.

Planning on heading outdoors this season? Make sure that your tetanus immunizations are up-to-date!

The temperature outside is finally above zero, which has provided me with a burst of spring energy! Most of us have long awaited the first signs of spring and are now ready to enjoy the temperate outdoors. Hiking is one of my favourite outdoor activities to do once the snow has melted so I make an effort to ensure my tetanus shot is up-to-date before I head out. Because tetanus is found in soil, any outdoor activity that has the potential for cuts, scrapes, or animal bites comes with the risk of tetanus infection.

Tetanus is caused by the toxin of a nasty little bacterium that gets into breaks in our skin and leads to excruciating muscle cramps and sometimes even death. Scary, right? Gardening, using outdoor machinery and getting too close to wild animals are also common sources of infection.

There is no cure for tetanus. Early recognition and prompt treatment including wound and supportive care, as well as the prompt administration of tetanus toxoid and tetanus immune globulin, may decrease the severity of the disease. The trick to protecting yourself? Getting your routine publicly-funded tetanus immunization! Infection with tetanus is uncommon in Canada because of immunization. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends routine childhood immunization against tetanus and routine tetanus and diphtheria boosters for adults. Are your immunizations up to date? Don’t let tetanus cramp your outdoor style!

To find out if your tetanus immunizations are up-to-date, contact your local public health unit. Visit Northern Health’s website for local health unit contact information as well for more information on tetanus and other vaccine-preventable illnesses.

Beth Munk

About Beth Munk

Beth was born and raised as a true northerner in Prince George, where she completed her nursing degree at UNBC in 2013. She relocated to Dawson Creek two years ago to pursue her dream job in preventive public health nursing and has loved getting to know her new community. Beth loves any outdoor activity, from hiking to soccer, and has much love and appreciation for nature. In her spare time, she can be found exploring waterfalls with her fiancé in the Peace River area or enjoying time spent at her family cabin in Prince George.

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Why does dental health matter?

Parent brushing a child's teeth.

Protecting your smile also protects your overall health! As National Oral Health Month winds down, it’s important to consider the links between oral health and overall health!

As National Oral Health Month winds down, it is important to reflect on why dental health matters and how to protect our smiles and overall health all year long!

Dental health is not limited to just the health of our teeth and gums. Our overall health is affected by our oral health. Poor oral health shares common risk factors with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Pregnant women with dental disease are at a greater risk of having a preterm, low birth weight baby who is also more at risk for developing complications. In a recent study, the risk for a preterm and low birth weight baby was seven times higher for pregnant women with dental disease than for pregnant women with healthy gums. In addition to the overall health risk, primary caregivers with poor oral health pass their cavity-causing bacteria onto the children they take care of, increasing the child’s risk for early childhood caries (tooth decay).

Poor dental health can be found in all ages and socioeconomic levels of our society; it doesn’t matter if you are rich or poor or how old you are. In children, it is the most common infectious disease and is “five times more common than asthma and seven times more common than hay fever.” In Canada, dental services account for 7 per cent of total health expenditures and about 39 per cent of Canadians experience lost time from work, school and other activities due to dental visits or dental sick days.

In Canada, oral cancer is the 13th most common type of cancer and has a relatively poor survival rate. Each year, more than 3,400 new cases of oral cancer will be diagnosed, 1,000 people will die from oral cancer, and the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is 63 per cent, which is below that of prostate, melanoma or cervical cancers. Many risk factors exist and Health Canada identifies several risk factors which can increase your risk of developing oral cancers:

  • You are over the age of 40.
  • You are male. Even though the gap is narrowing, men are twice as likely to develop oral cancer than women.
  • You have human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • You use tobacco products, especially if combined with high alcohol consumption.
  • You regularly drink a lot of alcohol.
  • Your lips are exposed to the sun on a regular basis.
  • Your diet is low in fruits and vegetables, robbing you of important protective factors.

To learn how to prevent dental disease and catch small problems early, before they become big problems, visit your dental office regularly.

Mother brushing child's teeth

National Oral Health Month may be winding down, but the link between oral health and overall health means thinking about and caring for our teeth and gums is important all year long!

Learn more about the importance of dental health through these great resources and articles:

Brenda Matsen

About Brenda Matsen

Born and raised in B.C., Brenda completed her diploma in dental hygiene in 1987, moved back to northern B.C. to work, raised her four sons in Prince George and, in 2009, obtained her BHSc. Brenda is the manager of the Northern Health Dental Program and has been with Northern Health since 2002. She is passionate about making a difference and appreciates the "can do" attitude of fellow northerners. When not at work, Brenda can be found enjoying the great outdoors in a variety of activities with her husband and Vizslas, throughout all our beautiful seasons.

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Did you know there is a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer?

You’ve probably heard about the vaccine that protects against human papillomavirus (HPV) but do you know much about it or why it is important for our health?

In the spirit of National Immunization Awareness Week, I would like to highlight this particular topic that continues to get media attention and is sometimes a point of concern for parents considering vaccinations for their school-aged children. I’ve also seen many young women in sexual health and immunization clinics who have had questions and misunderstandings about this immunization. In my experience, people are often ready to dismiss a vaccine when they’re uncertain of its safety or efficacy or if they’re uncertain of whether they’re even really at risk for the illness that the vaccine is preventing. This hesitation is understandable, right? We want to make sure that we are choosing health interventions that are necessary and safe for ourselves and our children. Well, hopefully I can help shed some light on this sometimes controversial topic!

The HPV vaccine protects against the virus that causes almost all cervical cancers. Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. Two types of HPV vaccines are approved for use in Canada: Cervarix® (HPV2) and Gardasil® (HPV4). Both vaccines protect against infection from HPV types 16 and 18 that cause about 70% of cervical cancers, 80% of anal cancers, and other cancers such as cancers of the mouth and throat, penis, vagina, and vulva. The HPV4 vaccine also protects against infection from HPV types 6 and 11 that cause about 90% of genital warts cases. The vaccines are approved by Health Canada and are provincially-funded (i.e., free) for girls and women aged 9-26. HPV4 vaccine is also recommended, but not provided free, for the following people:

  • Adult women up to 45 years of age
  • Boys and men 9-26 years of age
  • Men 27 years of age and older who have sex with men

Those not eligible for free HPV vaccine can purchase it at most pharmacies and travel clinics.

Facts on cervical cancer in B.C.If you’re a parent with daughters or a young woman considering this vaccine, here are a few facts:

  • HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. 3 out of 4 sexually active Canadians have been infected at some point in their lives.
  • HPV infection is spread even with the use of condoms as it is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact.
  • HPV infection rates peak at adolescence and can go undetected for quite some time as HPV usually causes little to no symptoms. For the greatest benefit, it is recommended to receive the HPV vaccine prior to the onset of sexual activity.
  • Studies have shown that antibody levels in those who received the HPV vaccine were greater in individuals 9-15 years of age compared to those 16 years and older. The BC Centre for Disease Control has a great primer on antibodies and the role they play.
  • Studies have shown that HPV vaccine is safe and effective. Common reactions are similar to other injectable vaccines and may include soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site, muscle or joint ache, fatigue, or headache.

This is just some of the information available on HPV vaccination. If you wish to find out more, please speak to your doctor or contact your local public health nurse. You can also visit Northern Health, ImmunizeBC, HealthLinkBC, and the BC Centre for Disease Control.

Still have questions? Check out the video below that provides more information on HPV and the HPV vaccine. ImmunizeBC has a great bank of HPV videos, too!

Additional immunization and HPV resources:

Kyrsten Thomson

About Kyrsten Thomson

Based in Terrace, Kyrsten is a public health communications liaison nurse. Her role focuses on promoting immunization awareness and supporting internal and external communications. Kyrsten moved to Terrace seven years ago after graduating with a nursing degree in Ontario. As a student, she knew public health was her passion, especially work in health promotion and community development. She fell in love with the north and all the fantastic outdoor activities right at her fingertips. Since moving to the north, Kyrsten has started a family, taken up hiking, running, and enjoys spending summer days at the cabin.

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Timing is everything for routine immunizations

Child on mother's lap being given a vaccine by a nurse.

To ensure that your child has the best protection, don’t forget about boosters and 18-month vaccines. Vaccines are most effective if given at the right time as your child grows.

As a working mom expecting her third baby and running around after two busy school-aged children, I know a thing or two about scheduling! Balancing kids’ activities with work, family obligations, and household duties as well as trips to the dentist, optometrist and doctor involves a certain degree of time management and juggling skills. When you stick to a schedule, things tend to run more smoothly … usually!

That being said, it’s easy to become overwhelmed and derailed when the to-do list becomes longer than the hours in a day. Try as we might to keep organized, appointments are missed and sometimes you find yourself at the soccer field when you should be at the swimming pool!

Though I have been a public health nurse for seven years and place a priority on health-related visits including immunization appointments, I, too, am guilty of slipping up. My kids, like many, received their infant immunizations on time during their first 12 months. As life gets busier, 12-month-olds become more rambunctious, and some of the nerves of first-year parenting start to calm, it becomes especially important – albeit a bit more challenging – to remember boosters. You want to make sure those infant immunizations stay as effective as possible in protecting your child! When your child is 18 months old, it is important to keep on schedule with the rest of their immunization boosters in order to give them the best protection against vaccine preventable-illnesses.

Why is it important to keep vaccines on schedule anyway? The routine immunization program is designed to provide your child with the best protection at the most effective and safest ages and intervals. Completing all infant and childhood vaccines on schedule builds immunity that is lasting.

As you may have noticed at your child’s followup immunization appointments, subsequent vaccine doses are given. Some vaccines need to be given more than once to build your child’s immune system. Following the routine schedule will ensure the right spacing is maintained. Is it time to boost your toddler’s immunity?

At 18 months, make sure to stay on schedule with:

  • DTaP-IPV-Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b)
  • Influenza (seasonal)
  • Hepatitis A (if eligible)

Contact your local health unit to find out if your child’s immunizations are up to date. You can also visit northernhealth.ca for more information on vaccine-preventable illnesses and immunizations.

To help keep track of your family’s immunization records, download the free ImmunizeCA app for Apple, Android, and Blackberry products.

Kyrsten Thomson

About Kyrsten Thomson

Based in Terrace, Kyrsten is a public health communications liaison nurse. Her role focuses on promoting immunization awareness and supporting internal and external communications. Kyrsten moved to Terrace seven years ago after graduating with a nursing degree in Ontario. As a student, she knew public health was her passion, especially work in health promotion and community development. She fell in love with the north and all the fantastic outdoor activities right at her fingertips. Since moving to the north, Kyrsten has started a family, taken up hiking, running, and enjoys spending summer days at the cabin.

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National Immunization Awareness Week

Group of nurses wearing I Boost Immunity T-shirts.

Northern Health staff in Fort St. John boost immunity – how about you? During National Immunization Awareness Week, think about how you might boost immunity!

In Canada, National Immunization Awareness Week (NIAW) is held annually in late April. NIAW is an opportunity to focus the attention of Canadians on the importance of vaccinations for all ages and to prompt citizens to ensure that immunizations are up-to-date for themselves and their loved ones.

Evidence clearly indicates that immunizations are the safest and most effective way to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases. Thanks to immunization programs across Canada, vaccine-preventable diseases now cause less than 5% of all deaths across the country. Over 100 years ago, these diseases were the leading cause of death worldwide. One does not have to look far into our history to uncover the devastation that vaccine-preventable diseases posed to the health and lives of Canadians.

Although we have come a long way in fighting infectious diseases, they continue to pose a significant threat to our health. You may recall recent outbreaks such as measles in southern Ontario and Quebec as well as pertussis in northwest B.C. So far, 140 cases of measles have been reported in 2015 in southern Ontario and Quebec and over 275 cases of pertussis have been reported in northern B.C. since January 2014.

Immunization protects individuals and communities by preventing the spread of disease. Those who are not vaccinated against common infectious diseases such as measles, chicken pox, influenza, pertussis, and human papillomavirus not only put their own health at risk, they also put the health of their family, friends and community at risk. As more people are immunized, the disease risk for everyone is reduced.

In the spirit of NIAW, British Columbians can join the I Boost Immunity campaign to help raise awareness about the value of immunization. I Boost Immunity is an advocacy platform based on the experiences of real families and individuals around B.C. who support vaccination. This initiative uses the power of social media to reach large audiences. There are many articles and stories readily available on this site which will help you to become an active supporter for immunization in your community. The more you participate, the more points you earn to cash in for prizes. Visit iboostimmunity.ca to sign up.

Immunization is the single most cost-effective health investment that has saved more lives in Canada in the past 50 years than any other health intervention. Talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist or local public health unit about staying up-to-date with immunizations.

Kyrsten Thomson

About Kyrsten Thomson

Based in Terrace, Kyrsten is a public health communications liaison nurse. Her role focuses on promoting immunization awareness and supporting internal and external communications. Kyrsten moved to Terrace seven years ago after graduating with a nursing degree in Ontario. As a student, she knew public health was her passion, especially work in health promotion and community development. She fell in love with the north and all the fantastic outdoor activities right at her fingertips. Since moving to the north, Kyrsten has started a family, taken up hiking, running, and enjoys spending summer days at the cabin.

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“Sip Cup” – Friend or Foe?

Running water from a tap filling a glass

Ditch the sip cup! Beginning at age one, start to introduce your child to a regular lidless cup.

These days, families with young children are on the go! With this comes the challenge of keeping children healthy and happy. One of the more common conveniences that we see for young children between the ages of 1-3 is the “sip cup”.

Sip cups have been around for several years. With a spouted lid, they are often preferred as a drink container by parents for several reasons. Parents can choose what beverage they put in the sip cups, lids are spill-resistant and the cups are break-resistant and reusable.

But, depending on how they are used, did you know that they could be putting your child at a higher risk of tooth decay?

If your child has teeth, they are at risk for tooth decay. Tooth decay can happen as the tooth is erupting too! To minimize the risk of tooth decay, have your child drink water for thirst. Other beverages contain sugars which coat the teeth over and over again, every time your child takes a sip. Even fruit juice contains natural sugars. Water is the safest drink between meals and for thirst. The Canadian Pediatric Society recommends introducing your child to a regular lidless cup around the age of one. So you can skip the sip cup! Remember to wash cups in hot soapy water between uses.

To help protect your child’s teeth from tooth decay, use a “pea sized amount or less” of children’s fluoride toothpaste, morning and night. Help your child brush until at least 8 years of age and continue to check how they did with brushing after that. Avoid soft sticky foods such as dried fruit, raisins or candy that will stick on your child’s teeth for long periods of time. Choose fresh fruit instead of juice or dried fruit. Drink water for thirst and visit your dental team regularly.

The Canadian Dental Association encourages the assessment of infants, by a dentist, within 6 months of the eruption of the first tooth or by one year of age.

For more information and some great dental games for kids, please visit:

Brenda Matsen

About Brenda Matsen

Born and raised in B.C., Brenda completed her diploma in dental hygiene in 1987, moved back to northern B.C. to work, raised her four sons in Prince George and, in 2009, obtained her BHSc. Brenda is the manager of the Northern Health Dental Program and has been with Northern Health since 2002. She is passionate about making a difference and appreciates the "can do" attitude of fellow northerners. When not at work, Brenda can be found enjoying the great outdoors in a variety of activities with her husband and Vizslas, throughout all our beautiful seasons.

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Protect your smile

Canadian Dental Association guidelines for toothpaste amount.

Brush in the morning and at night with a small amount of fluoride toothpaste. For children under 3, a rice-sized amount of toothpaste is sufficient. For children 3 and older, aim for a pea-sized amount.

According to the Canadian Dental Association, good dental health “contributes positively to your physical, mental and social well-being and to the enjoyment of life’s possibilities, by allowing you to speak, eat and socialize unhindered by pain, discomfort or embarrassment.”

Unfortunately, poor dental health can be found at all ages and socioeconomic levels. In children, tooth decay is the most common infectious disease and is five times more common than asthma and seven times more common than hay fever. Tooth decay is preventable and National Oral Health Month is a great time to learn more about this condition.

What are cavities?

Cavities, or tooth decay, happen when the hard outside layer of a tooth (enamel) has been eaten away or demineralized by acids, forming a hole in the tooth.

Where do the acids that attack teeth come from?

Specific cavity-causing bacteria in our mouths make acids by using the sugars in foods that we eat. Some acids also come straight from foods like juice and pop. Every time we eat something that has sugars or acids, our teeth are attacked or broken down by these acids for about 20 minutes, but this acid attack can be even longer if we choose sticky foods that are able to stay on our teeth. Fluoride in toothpaste, water, or rinses works to protect our teeth against acid attacks no matter what age we are.

How can I protect my teeth from acid attacks?

  • Avoid acidic foods and drinks like pop, juice, iced tea, lemonade, and energy drinks. Drink water for thirst instead.
  • Avoid constant snacking or “grazing.”
  • Choose a variety of healthy foods and snacks every day.
  • Limit how often you choose foods with added sugar.
  • Brush your teeth in the morning and at night with small amount of fluoride toothpaste.
  • When you can’t brush right after a meal or snack, help dilute acids and sugars by rinsing with water or chewing sugarless gum.
  • See your dental office regularly, approximately every six months. Tooth decay and more serious oral cancers often do not show signs or symptoms until they’re big problems. Early detection is critical so aim to catch small problems early, before they become big problems!
Brenda Matsen

About Brenda Matsen

Born and raised in B.C., Brenda completed her diploma in dental hygiene in 1987, moved back to northern B.C. to work, raised her four sons in Prince George and, in 2009, obtained her BHSc. Brenda is the manager of the Northern Health Dental Program and has been with Northern Health since 2002. She is passionate about making a difference and appreciates the "can do" attitude of fellow northerners. When not at work, Brenda can be found enjoying the great outdoors in a variety of activities with her husband and Vizslas, throughout all our beautiful seasons.

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